NR 2 - Nature and Culture

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Great Ideas About Nature & Culture
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Great Ideas About Nature & Culture
(Okay, maybe they're just good ideas.)

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1.  Environmental history (history of human impacts to the environment and vice versa; intellectual history; social/political history)

2.  Received versus revisionist history

3.  History as storytelling/storytellers

4.  Primary versus secondary documents

5.  Environment as broadly interpreted (wild, rural, urban, humans)

6.  Social values in nature (diversity of values; material versus nonmaterial; commodity versus non-commodity; commodity versus amenity; instrumental versus intrinsic)

7.  Environmental philosophy/environmental ethics

8.  Anthropocentrism versus biocentrism/ecocentrism

9.  Exploitation, conservation, preservation, sustainability

10.  Natural diversity/cultural diversity/social stability

11.  Cultural diversity/social justice (race/ethnicity, gender, class, environmental racism, imperialism, speciesism)

12.    Ecological revolutions:  ecology, production, reproduction, consciousness/cognition

13.  Human ecology versus ecological imperialism

14.  Religion/spirit and nature

15.  Science and nature

16.  Reason versus emotion (professionals/scientists versus amateurs/citizens)

17.  Worldviews/paradigms; dominate worldview versus new environmental paradigm

18.  Reality as social construct (nature, wilderness, history, science, etc.)

19.  Modernism versus postmodernism

20.  Dichotomy/hierarchy (nature versus culture; nature versus humans; natural history versus human history)

21  Progressive versus tragic/declensionist (optimistic versus pessimistic; cornucopians versus neo-Malthusians; environmentalists as “gloom and doomers”)

22.  Economy versus ecology; ecological economies

23.  Public versus private (capitalistic versus bureaucratic; laissez-faire versus Progressive Era Conservation; public versus private land; social welfare versus private property rights)

24.   Technical versus non-technical solutions

25.  Ecology as the subversive science

26.  Use versus preservation

27.  Standard of living versus quality of life

28.  Disciplinary versus interdisciplinary (natural science to ecology; natural and social science to sustainability/ecosystem management; specialists versus generalists; professions/fields of study; departments versus programs)

29.  Social institutions and the environment: political economy (subsistence, capitalist, socialist; decentralized, centralized, planned)

30.  From local to global issues/globalization

31.  Ambivalence toward nature

32.  Nature as culture

33.  Paradoxes of preservation (scarcity; irony of victory)

34.  Balance, sustainability, harmony, ecosystem management

35.  Diversity of environmentalism (Conservation Movement versus Environmental Movement; mainstream versus alternative environmentalism; deep versus shallow environmentalism)

36.  Natural resources versus environment/nature