University of Vermont

Park Studies Laboratory

Publications

Publications

Mesa Verde National Park

Books

Manning, R. and Anderson, L. 2012. Managing Outdoor Recreation: Case Studies in the National Parks. Oxfordshire, UK: CABI. For ordering information, contact CABI.

Manning, R. 2011. Studies in Outdoor Recreation: Search and Research for Satisfaction (3rd Edition). Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. For ordering information, contact Oregon State University Press.

Manning, R. 2009. Parks and People: Research to Support Management of Outdoor Recreation at Acadia National Park. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. For ordering information, contact University Press of New England.

Manning, R. 2007. Parks and Carrying Capacity: Commons Without Tragedy. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 313 pages. For ordering information, contact Island Press.

Minteer, B., and R. Manning. 2003. Reconstructing Conservation: Finding Common Ground. Washington, D.C: Island Press, 417 pages. For ordering information, contact Island Press.

Manning, R. (ed.).1983. Mountain Passages: An Appalachia Anthology. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club, 229 pages. For ordering information, contact Appalachian Mountain Club.

Book Chapters

Manning, R. 2011. Indicators and Standards in Parks and Outdoor Recreation. In Quality of LIfe and Community Indicators for Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management. Netherlands: Springer, pp. 11-22. (pdf)

Hallo, J. and R. Manning. 2010. Managing Park Roads and Scenic Driving Using Indicators and Standards-Based Frameworks. Drive Tourism: Trends and Emerging Markets. New York: Routledge, pp 339-357. (pdf)

Minteer, B., and R. Manning. 2009. Convergence in Environmental Values: An Empirical and Conceptual Defense. Nature in Common? Environmental Ethics and the Contested Foundations of Environmental Policy. Philidelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 65-80. (pdf)

Lawson, S., J. Hallo, and R. Manning. 2008. Measuring, Monitoring, and Managing Visitor Use in Parks and Protected Areas Using Computer-Based Simulation Modeling. Monitoring, Simulation, and Management of Visitor Landscapes. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, pp. 175-188. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2005. The Limits of Tourism in Parks and Protected Areas: Managing Carrying Capacity in the U.S. National Parks. Taking Tourism to the Limits: Issues, Concepts and Management Perspectives. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 129-139. (pdf)

Manning, R., W. Valliere, S. Lawson, P. Newman, M. Burduk, D. Laven, J. Bacon, and B. Wang. 2004. Development and Application of Carrying Capacity Frameworks for Parks and Protected Areas. Global Challenges of Parks and Protected Area Management. Sassari, Italy: Carlo Delfino, pp. 373-384. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2004. Arches National Park (USA): Indicators and Standards of Quality for Sustainable Tourism and Carrying Capacity. Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook. Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization, pp. 342-344. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2004. Recreation Planning Frameworks. Society and Natural Resources: A Summary of Knowledge. Jefferson, Missouri: Modern Litho, pp. 83-96. (Prepared for the Tenth International Symposium on Society and Resource Management). (pdf)

Manning, R., S. Lawson, P. Newman, M. Budruk, W. Valliere, D. Laven and J. Bacon. 2004. Visitor Perceptions of Recreation-Related Resource Impacts. Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism. London:CAB International. pp. 259-272. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2004. Managing Impacts of Ecotourism Through Use Rationing and Allocation.Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism. London: CAB International. pp. 273-286. (pdf)

Minteer, B. and R. Manning. 2003. Conservation: From Deconstruction to Reconstruction. Reconstructing Conservation: Finding Common Ground. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, pp. 3-16. For ordering information, contact Island Press. (pdf)

Minteer, B. and R. Manning. 2003. Our Common Ground: Emerging Principles for a Reconstructed Conservation. Reconstructing Conservation: Finding Common Ground. Washington, D. C.:Island Press, pp.335-349. For ordering information, contact Island Press. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2003. Social Climate Change: A Sociology of Environmental Philosophy. Reconstructing Conservation: Finding Common Ground. Washington, D.C: Island Press, pp. 207-222. For ordering information, contact Island Press. (pdf)

Minteer, B. and R. Manning. 2003. Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics: Democracy, Pluralism, and the Management of Nature. Environmental Ethics: An Anthology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 319-330. For ordering information, contact Blackwell Publishing. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2000. Coming of Age: History and Trends in Outdoor Recreation Research. Trends in Ourtdoor Recreation, Leisure, and Tourism. New York: CABI Publishing, pp. 121-130. For ordering information, contact CABI Publishing. (pdf)

Manning, R. 1999. Crowding and Carrying Capacity in Outdoor Recreation: From Normative Standards to Standards of Quality. Leisure Studies: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century. State College, PA: Venture Press, pp.323-334. (pdf)

Manning, R. 1991. Sustainable Tourism: Tourism in the Parks, Recreation, and Conservation Community. Tourism and Leisure: Dynamics and Diversity. Arlington, VA: National Recreation and Park Association, pp. 107-116. For ordering information, contact National Recreation and Park Association. (pdf)

Journal Articles

Manning, R. 2013. Social Norms and Reference Points: Integrating Sociology and Ecology. Environmental Conservation. 40(4) pp:310-317.(pdf)

Manning, R. 2012. Long Walks, Deep Thoughts. Chronicle of Higher Education. December 14, 2012. (pdf)

Pettengill, P., Lee, B., and Manning, R. 2012. Traveler Perspective of Greenway Quality in Northern New England. Transportation Research Record. 2314, pp:31-40. (pdf)

Pettengill, P., Manning, R., Anderson, L., Valliere, W., and Reigner, N. 2012. Measuring and Managing the Quality of Transportation at Acadia National Park. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 30(1)pp:68-84. (pdf)

Reigner, N., and Lawson, S. 2009. Improving the Efficacy of Visitor Education in Haleakala National Park Using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Interpretation Research. 14(2)pp:21-48. (pdf)

Reigner, N., Lawson, S., Meldrum, B., Pettebone, D., Newman, P., Gibson, A., and Kiser, B. 2012. Adaptive Management of Visitor Use on Half Dome, An Example of Effectiveness. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 30(3)pp:64-78. (pdf)

Special Issue. 2012. From Model T's to computer models: integrating transportation with visitor capacity research and planning at Yosemite National Park. George Wright Forum. 29(3).(pdf)

Manning, R. 2012. Mountains with Handrails: The Trouble on Half Dome. Appalachia LXIII:42-53. (pdf)

Anderson, L., R. Manning, C. Monz, and K. Goonan. 2012. Indicators and Standards of Quality for Paddling on Lake Champlain. Journal of Great Lakes Research 38:150-156. (pdf)

Goonan, K., C. Monz, R. Manning, and L. Anderson. 2012. Resource Conditions and Paddler Standards for Primitive Campsites along Lake Champlain. Journal of Great Lakes Research 38:157-166. (pdf)

van Riper, C., R. Manning, C. Monz, and K. Goonan. 2011. Visitor Preferences for Tradeoffs among Recreation Conditions on Mountain Summits in the Northern Forest of the United States. Leisure Sciences 33(3): 228-249. (pdf)

Manning, R. and Others. 2011. Defining, Measuring, Monitoring, and Managing the Sustainability of Parks for Outdoor Recreation. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 29(3): 14-26. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2011. Defining and Managing Visitor Capacity in National Parks: A Program of Research in the U.S. National Park System. Journal of Tourism and Leisure Studies 17(2): 183-214. (pdf)

Stack, D., P. Newman, R. Manning, and K. Fristrup. 2011. Reducing Visitor Noise Levels at Muir Woods Using Experimental Management Practices. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 129(3): 1375-1380. (pdf)

Whittaker, D., B. Shelby, R. Manning, D. Cole, and G. Haas. 2011. Capacity Reconsidered: Finding Consensus and Clarifying Differences. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 29(1): 1-20. (pdf)

Marin, L., P. Newman, R. Manning, J. Vaske, and D. Stack. 2011. Motivation and Acceptability Norms of Human-Caused Sound in Muir Woods National Monument. Leisure Sciences 33(2): 147-161. (pdf)

Manning, R. and J. Hallo. 2010. The Denali Park Road Experience: Indicators and Standards of Quality. Park Science 27(2): 33-41. (pdf)

Manning, R., W. Valliere, and J. Hallo. 2010. Recreational Carrying Capacity of Lake Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge.  Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management. 1(2): 175-182. (pdf)

van Riper, C., R. Manning, and N. Reigner. 2010. Perceived Impacts of Outdoor Recreation on the Summit of Cascade Mountain, New York. Adirondack Journal of Environmental Studies 16(1). (link)

Monz, C., J. Marion, K. Goonan, R. Manning, J. Wimpey, and J. Carr. 2010. Assessment and Monitoring of Recreation Impacts and Resource Conditions on Mountain Summits: Examples from the Northern Forest, USA. Mountain Research and Developement. Mountain Research and Development. 30(4): 332-343. (pdf)

Hallo, J. and R. Manning. 2010. On the Edge, Peering In: Defining and Managing the Near-Wilderness Experience. International Journal of Wilderness. 16(3):28-34. (pdf)

Laven, D., R. Manning, C. Ventriss, and N. Mitchell. 2010. Evaluating National Heritage Areas: Theory, Methods, and Application. Environmental Management. 46(2):195-212. (pdf)

Laven, D., D. Krymkowski, C. Ventriss, R. Manning, and N. Mitchell. 2010. From Partnerships to Networks: New Approaches to Measuring U.S. National Heritage Area Effectiveness. Evaluation Review. 34(4):271-298. (pdf)

Manning, R., and D. Krymkowski. 2010. Standards of Quality for Parks and Protected Areas: Applying Normative Theory and Methods in the U.S. National Parks. International Journal of Sociology. 40(3): 11-29. (pdf)

Manning, R., W. Valliere, and J. Hallo. 2010. Recreational Carrying Capacity of Lake Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management. 1(2):175-182. (pdf)

Anderson, L., R. Manning, W. Valliere, and J. Hallo. 2010. Normative Standards for Wildlife Viewing in Parks and Protected Areas. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15:1-15. (pdf)

Manning, R., P.Newman, K. Fristrup, D. Stack, and E. Pilcher. 2009/2010. A Program of Research to Support Management of Visitor-Caused Noise at Muir Woods National Monument. Park Science, 26(3):1-6. (pdf)

Krymkowski, D., R. Manning, and W. Valliere. 2009. Norm Crystallization: Measurement and Comparative Analysis. Leisure Sciences, 31:403-416. (pdf)

Hallo, J., and R. Manning. 2009. Analysis of Social Carrying Capacity of a National Park Scenic Road. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 4:75-94. (pdf)

Manning, R., S. Lawson, and W. Valliere. 2009/2010. Multiple Manifestations of Crowding in Outdoor Recreation: A Study of the Relative Importance of Crowding-Related Indicators Using Indifference Curve Analysis. Leisure/Losir, 331-22. (pdf)

Hallo, J. and R. Manning. 2009. Transportation and Recreation: A Case Study of Visitors Driving for Pleasure at Acadia National Park. Journal of Transport Geography, 17:491-499.(pdf)

Hallo, J., R. Manning, and P. Stokowski. 2009. Understanding and Managing the Off-Road Vehicle Experience: Indicators of Quality. Managing Leisure, 14:195-209.(pdf)

Hallo, J., and R. Manning. 2009. Understanding and Managing the Off-Road Vehicle Experience: Standards of Quality. Managing Leisure, 14:269-285. .(pdf)

Smyth, R., M. Watzin, and R. Manning. 2009. Investigating Public Preference for Managing Lake Champlain Using a Choice Experiment. Journal of Environmental Management, 90:615-623.(pdf)

Pilcher, E., P. Newman, and R. Manning. 2008. Understanding and Managing Experiential Aspects of Soundscapes at Muir Woods National Monument. Environmental Management, 43:425-435.(pdf)

Marion, J., R. Dvorak, and R. Manning. 2008. Wildlife Feeding in Parks: Methods for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Educational Interventions and Wildlife Food Attraction Behaviors. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 13:429-442..(pdf)

Park, L., R. Manning, J. Marion, S. Lawson, and C. Jacobi. 2008. Managing Visitor Impacts in Parks: A Multi-Method Study of the Effectiveness of Alternative Management Practices. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26:97-121. (pdf)

Kuentzel, W., D. Laven, R. Manning, and W. Valliere. 2008. When Do Normative Standards Matter Most? Understanding the Role of Norm Strength at Multiple National Park Settings, Leisure Sciences, 30:127-142. (pdf)

Vaske, J., and R. Manning. 2008. Analysis of Multiple Data Sets in Outdoor Recreation Research. Leisure Sciences 30:93-95. (pdf)

Abbe, D. and R. Manning. 2007. Wilderness Day Use: Patterns, Impacts, and Management. International Journal of Wilderness. 13(2):21-25, 38. (pdf)

Smyth, R., M. Watzin, and R. Manning. 2007. Defining Acceptable Levels for Ecological Indicators: An Approach for Considering Social Values." Environmental Management. 39: 301-315. (pdf)

Manning, R., and C. Ginger. 2007. An Owners Manual to "Ownership": A Reply to LaChapelle and McCool." Society and Natural Resources. 20: 187-192. (pdf)

Manning, R., C. Jacobi, and J. Marion. 2006. Recreation Monitoring at Acadia National Park." The George Wright Forum. 23: 59-72. (pdf)

Lawson, S., R. Itami, R. Gimblett, and R. Manning. 2006. Benefits and Challenges of Computer Simulation Modeling of Backcountry Recreation Use in the Desolation Lake Area of the John Muir Wilderness. Journal of Leisure Research. 38:187-203. (pdf)

Minteer, B. and R. Manning. 2005. An Appraisal of the Critique of Anthropocentrism and Three Lesser Known Themes in Lynne White's "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis." Organization and Environment. 18: 163-176. (pdf)

Newman, P., R. Manning, and D. Dennis. 2005. Informing Carrying Capacity Decision-Making in Yosemite National Park, USA Using Stated Choice Modeling. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 23: 75-89. (pdf)

Vande Kamp, M., D. Johnson, and R. Manning 2005. Managing Exit Glacier's Popularity: Social Scienc Looks At Visitor Experience. Alaska Park Science. 3(2): 28-33. (pdf)

Cole, D., Manning, R., and D. Lime. 2005. Addressing Visitor Capacity of Parks and Rivers. Parks and Recreation. 40(3): 8-12. (pdf)

Manning, R., Y. Leung, and M. Budruk. 2005. Research to Support Management of Visitor Carrying Capacity at Boston Harbor Islands. Northeastern Naturalist. 12: 201-220. (pdf)

Manning, R., S. Lawson and J. Morrissey. 2005. What's Behind the Numbers? Qualitative Insights Into Normative Research in Outdoor Recreation. Leisure Sciences. 27: 205-224. (pdf)

Laven, D., R. Manning, and D. Krymkowski. 2005. The Relationship Between Visitor-Based Standards of Quality and Existing Conditions in Parks and Outdoor Recreation. Leisure Sciences. 27: 157-173. (pdf)

Kyle, G., A. Graefe, and R. Manning. 2005. Testing the Dimensionality of Place Attachment in Recreational Settings. Environment and Behavior. 37:157-177. (pdf)

Manning, R. and W. Freimund. 2004. Use of Visual Research Methods to Measure Standards of Quality for Parks and Outdoor Recreation. Journal of Leisure Research. 36: 552-579. (pdf)

Minteer, B., E. Corley, and R. Manning. 2004. Environmental Ethics Beyond Principle? The Case for a Pragmatic Contextualism. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 17:131-156. (pdf)

Kyle, G., A. Graefe, and R. Manning. 2004. Satisfaction Derived from Leisure Involvement and Setting Attachment. Leisure: Journal of the Canadian Association for Leisure Studies, 28(3-4): 277-306. (pdf)

Kyle, G., A. Graefe, R. Manning, and J. Bacon. 2004. Effect of Activity Involvement and Place Attachment on Recreationists' Perceptions of Setting Density. Journal of Leisure Research 36(2): 209-231. (pdf)

Kyle, G., A. Graefe, R. Manning, and J. Bacon. 2004. Predictors of Behavioral Loyalty Among Hikers Along the Appalachian Trail. Leisure Sciences 26: 99-118. (pdf)

Kyle, G., Graefe, A. and R. Manning. 2004. Attached Recreationists...Who Are They? Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 22(2): 65-84. (pdf)

Minteer, B. and R. Manning. 2003. Conservation: From Deconstruction to Reconstruction. The George Wright Forum. 20(4): 64-77. (pdf)

Lawson, S., A. Keily. and R. Manning. 2003. Computer Simulation as a Tool for Developing Alternatives for Managing Crowding at Wilderness Campsites on Isle Royale. The George Wright Forum 20(3): 72-82. (pdf)

Kyle, G., A. Graefe, R. Manning, and J. Bacon. 2003. An Examination of the Relationship Between Leisure Activity Involvement and Place Attachment Among Hikers Along the Appalachian Trail. Journal of Leisure Research 35(3):249-273. (pdf)

Manning, R., S. Lawson, P. Newman, W. Valliere, M. Budruk, and D. Laven. 2003. Basic and Applied Research: Application of Disciplinary Theory and Methods in the Field of Leisure Studies. Leisure and Society26(1):25-48. (pdf)

Newman, P., R. Manning, J. Bacon, A. Graefe, and G. Kyle. 2003. An Evaluation of Appalachian Trail Hikers' Knowledge of Minimum Impact Skills and Practices. International Journal of Wilderness 9(2):34-38. (pdf)

Minteer, B., E. Corley, and R. Manning. 2003. Environmental Ethics Beyond Principle? The Case for a Pragmatic Contextualism. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 17: 131-156. (pdf)

Lawson, S., R. Manning, W. Valliere, and B. Wang. 2003. Proactive Monitoring and Adaptive Management of Social Carrying Capacity in Arches National Park: An Application of Computer Simulation Modeling. 68: 305-313. (pdf)

Lawson, S. and R. Manning. 2003. Integrating Multiple Wilderness Values into a Decision-Making Model for Denali National Park and Preserve. Journal for Nature Conservation. 11(4): 355-362. (pdf)

Lawson, S. and R. Manning. 2003. Research to Inform Management of Wilderness Camping at Isle Royale National Park: Part I Descriptive Research. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 21(3): 22-42. (pdf)

Lawson, S. and R. Manning. 2003. Research to Inform Management of Wilderness Camping at Isle Royale National Park: Part II Prescriptive Research. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. 21(3): 43-55. (pdf)

Manning, R., W. Valliere, B. Wang, S. Lawson, and P. Newman. 2003. Estimating Day Use Social Carrying Capacity in Yosemite National Park. Leisure: The Journal of the Canadian Association for Leisure Studies. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2003. Emerging Principles for Using Information and Education for Wilderness Management. International Journal of Wilderness. 9:20-27, 12. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2003. What to Do About Crowding and Solitude in Parks and Wilderness? A Reply to Stewart and Cole. Journal of Leisure Research 35:107-118. (pdf)

Davenport, M., W. Borrie, W. Freimund, and R. Manning. 2002. Assessing the Relationship Between Desired Experiences and Support for Management Actions at Yellowstone National Park Using Multiple Methods. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 20(3):51-64. (pdf)

Manning, R., B. Wang, W. Valliere, S. Lawson, and P. Newman. 2002. Research to Estimate and Manage Carrying Capacity of a Tourist Attraction: A Study of Alcatraz Island. Journal of Sustainable Toursim 10:388-464. (pdf)

Manning, R. and S. Lawson. 2002. Carrying Capacity as "Informed Judgement": The Values of Science and the Science of Values. Environmental Management. 30: 157-168. (pdf)

Lawson, S. and R. Manning. 2002. Tradeoffs Among Social, Resource, and Managerial Attributes of the Denali Wilderness Experience: A Contextual Approach to Normative Research. Leisure Sciences. 24: 297-312.(pdf)

Manning, R., S. Lawson, P. Newman, D. Laven, W. Valliere. 2002. Methodological Issues in Measuring Crowding-Related Norms in Outdoor Recreation. Leisure Sciences. 24: 339-348. (pdf)

Manning, R. and W. Valliere. 2002. Coping in Outdoor Recreation: Causes and Consequences of Crowding and Conflict Among Community Residents. Journal of Leisure Research. 33: 410-426. (pdf)

Manning, R. and T. More. 2002. Recreational Values of Public Parks. The George Wright Forum. 19: 21-30. (pdf)

Lawson, S. and R. Manning. 2001. Solitude Versus Access: A Study of Tradeoffs in Outdoor Recreation Using Indifference Curve Analysis. Leisure Sciences. 23:179-191. (pdf)

Manning, R., P. Newman, W. Valliere, B. Wang, and S. Lawson. 2001. Respondent Self-Assessment of Research on Crowding Norms in Outdoor Recreation. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(3): 251-271. (pdf)

Manning, R. 2001. Visitor Experience and Resource Protection: A Framework for Managing the Carrying Capacity of National Parks. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 19(1):93-108. (pdf)

Laven, D., R. Manning, D. Johnson, and M. Vande Kamp. 2001. Integrating Subsistence Use and Users into Park and Wilderness Management. The George Wright Forum 18(3): 52-61. (pdf)

Bacon, J., R. Manning, D. Johnson, and M. Vande Kamp. 2001. Norm Stability: A Longitudinal Analysis of Crowding and Related Norms in the Wilderness of Denali National Park and Preserve. The George Wright Forum 18(3): 62-71. (pdf)

Warzecha, C., R. Manning, D. Lime, and W. Freimund. 2001. Diversity in Outdoor Recreation: Planning and Managing a Spectrum of Visitor Opportunities in and Among Parks. The George Wright Forum 18(3): 99-111. (pdf)

Lawson, S. and R. Manning. 2001. Crossing Experiential Boundaries: Visitor Preferences Regarding Tradeoffs Among Social, Resource, and Managerial Attributes of the Denali Wilderness. The George Wright Forum 18(3): 10-27. (pdf)

Borrie, W., W. Freimund, M. Davenport, and R. Manning. 2001. Crossing Methodological Boundaries: Assessing Visitor Motivations and Support for Management Actions at Yellowstone National Park Using Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches. The George Wright Forum 18(3): 72-84.(pdf)

Budruk, M., W. Valliere, R. Manning, D. Laven, and M. Hof. 2001. Crossing Programmatic Boundaries: Integrative Approaches to Managing the Quality of the Visitor Experience. The George Wright Forum 18(3):23:56 1/16/2005 124-131. (pdf)

Manning, R., J. Bacon, A. Graefe, G. Kyle, R. Lee, and R. Burns. 2001. I Never Hike Alone: Security on the Appalachian Trail. Parks and Recreation 36(7): 50-56. (pdf)

Manning, R., W. Valliere, B. Minteer, B. Wang, and C. Jacobi. 2000. Crowding in Parks and Outdoor Recreation: A Theoretical, Empirical, and Managerial Analysis. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 18(4): 57-72. (pdf)

Morrissey, J. and R. Manning. 2000. Race, Residence and Environmental Concern: New Englanders and the White Mountain National Forest. Human Ecology Review, 7(1): 12-24. (pdf)

Minteer, B. and R. Manning. 2000. Convergence in Environmental Values: An Empirical and Conceptual Defense. Ethics, Place and Environment, 3(1): 47-60. (pdf)

Jacobi, C. and R. Manning. 1999. Crowding and Conflict on the Carriage Roads of Acadia National Park: An Application of the Visitor Experience and Resource Protection Framework. Park Science, 19(2):22-26. (pdf)

Manning, R., S. Lawson, and L. Frymier. 1999. Navigating the Confluence of Two Streams of Social Research: Contingent Valuation and Normative Standards. Human Ecology Review, 6(1):35-48. (pdf)

Manning, R., W. Valliere, and B. Minteer. 1999. Values, Ethics, and Attitudes Toward National Forest Management. Society and Natural Resources, 12(5):421-436. (pdf)

Manning, R., W. Valliere, B. Wang, and C. Jacobi. 1999. Crowding Norms: Alternative Measurement Approaches. Leisure Sciences. 21(2):97-115. (pdf)

Wang, B. and R. Manning. 1999. Computer Simulation Modeling for Recreation Management: A Study on Carriage Road Use in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Environmental Management, 23(2):193-203.(pdf)

Minteer, B. A. and R. Manning. 1999. Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics: Democracy, Pluralism, and the Management of Nature. Environmental Ethics. 21(2):191-207. (pdf)

Manning, R. 1998. To Provide for the Enjoyment: Recreation Management in the National Parks. The George Wright Forum. 15(1):6-20. (pdf)

Manning, R. 1998. Integration in Natural Resources Education: Designing a Core Curriculum. Society and Natural Resources. 11:179-190. (pdf)

Manning, R., C. Jacobi, W. Valliere, and B. Wang. 1998. Standards of Quality in Parks and Recreation. Parks and Recreation. 33(7):88-94. (pdf)

Manning, R. and B. Wang. 1998. Social Science in the National Park System: An Assessment of Visitor Information. Park Science. 18(1):1, 16-17. (pdf)

Ormiston, D., A. Gilbert, and R. Manning. 1998. Indicators and Standards of Quality for Ski Resort Management. Journal of Travel Research. 36:35-41. (pdf)

Manning, R. 1997. Social Carrying Capacity of Parks and Outdoor Recreation Areas. Parks and Recreation. 32(10): 32-38. (pdf)

Negra, C. and R. Manning. 1997. Incorporating Environmental Behavior, Ethics, and Values into Nonformal Environmental Education Programs. Journal of Environmental Education. 28(2):10-21. (pdf)

Manning, R., D. Johnson, and M. Vande Kamp. 1996. Norm Congruence Among Tour Boat Passengers to Glacier Bay National Park. Leisure Sciences 18(2):125-141. (pdf)

Manning, R. , D. Lime, W. Freimund, and D. Pitt. 1996. Crowding Norms at Frontcountry Sites: A Visual Approach to Setting Standards of Quality. Leisure Sciences 18(1):39-59. (pdf)

Manning, R. , D. Lime, and M. Hof. 1996. Social Carrying Capacity of Natural Areas: Theory and Application in the National Parks. Natural Areas Journal 16(2):118-127. (pdf)

Manning, R., J. Marion, and J. Roggenbuck. 1996. Recreation Management in Natural Areas: Problems and Practices, Status and Trends. Natural Areas Journal 16(2):142-146. (pdf)

Manning, R. and W. Valliere. 1996. Environmental Values, Environmental Ethics and Wilderness Management: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Wilderness 2(2):27-32. (pdf)

Manning, R., W. Valliere, and B. Minteer. 1996. Environmental Values and Ethics: An Empirical Study of the Philosophical Foundations for Park Policy. The George Wright Forum 13(2):20-31. (pdf)

Manning, R., D. Lime, M. Hof, and W. Freimund. 1995. The Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) Process: The Application of Carrying Capacity to Arches National Park. The George Wright Forum 12(3):41-55. (pdf)

Manning, R. 1995. Future Perfect. Parks and Recreation30(9): 66-74. (pdf)

Hof, M., J. Hammett, M. Rees, J. Belnap, N. Poe, D. Lime, and R. Manning. 1994. Getting a Handle on Carrying Capacity: A Pilot Project at Arches National Park. Park Science 14(1):11-13. (pdf)

Roggenbuck, J., J. Marion and R. Manning. 1994. Day Users of the Backcountry: The Neglected National Park Visitor. Trends 31(3):19-24. (pdf)

Hornback, K., and R. Manning. 1992. When is a Visit Really a Visit? Public Use Reporting at Acadia National Park. Park Science 13:23. (pdf)

Manning, R., and M. Smith. 1992. Environmental Significance of Historical Parks: A Study of Evolving Park Values. Park Science 13:25. (pdf)

Manning, R. 1990. Do Parks Make Good Neighbors? Park Science 11:19-20. (pdf)

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