1998 – 2003 Ph.D. Cell and Molecular Biology (Immunology). University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont.
Thesis: The Two Faces of Interleukin-6 on T helper 1/2 Differentiation
1994-1998 B.S. Biology (Chemistry minor), State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo, New York
Human Immunology, Vaccine Development
The overarching goal of my research is to define signaling mechanisms that control human T and B cell function in both normal and dysfunctional (i.e. chronic inflammation) states. We study this in the context of in vivo human vaccine responses as well as in defined in vitro culture settings. Through the use of relevant culture models and retroviral delivery of stable genetic modifications we can dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in human T and B cell differentiation and acquisition of effector function. This work is done with a focus on neglected infectious diseases and global health. Current projects aim to 1) understand immunological basis for oral vaccine failure in the context of malnourishment and 2) Cellular and humoral immune responses to vaccination with live-attenuated formulations of Dengue virus (DENV), a vector-borne virus endemic to nearly half the world’s population.
Research Grant (Durbin, PI)Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
OPP1104710 02/01/2015 – 01/31/2018
The dengue human infection model: Defining correlates of protection and advancing vaccine development
Objective: To define immunological correlates of protection in a dengue human infection model. Role: consortium co-PI
2011 NIH Clinical Research Loan Repayment Program.
2005 NIH F32 National Service Research Award (NSRA) Postdoctoral Fellowship
2005 AMC Magazine cover article "American support for immortal cells" by Arthur van Zuylen
2002 University of Vermont Graduate College Mini Travel Grant
2000 Tuition Scholarship, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Course, Eurkaryotic Gene TranscriptionRincon M, Carbone G, Wilson A, Diehl SA, Bunn JY, and SM Cooper (2013) Interleukin-6 receptor blockade selectively reduces IL-21 production by CD4+ T cells and IgG4 autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Int. J. Biol. Sci.; 9(3): 279-288.
Diehl SA*, Schmidlin H, Nagasawa M, Blom B, and H Spits. (2012) IL-6 triggers IL-21 production by human CD4+ T cells to drive STAT3-dependent plasma cell differentiation in B cells. Immunology and Cell Biology 90(8):802-11 *corresponding author.
Becker PD, Legrand N, van Geelen CMM, Noerder M, Huntington ND, Lim A, Yasuda E, Diehl SA, Scheeren FA, Ott M, Weijer K, Wedemeyer H, Di Santo JP, Beaumont T, Guzman CA, and H Spits. (2010) Generation of Human Antigen-Specific Monoclonal IgM Antibodies Using Vaccinated "Human Immune System" Mice. PLoS ONE. Oct 4; 5(10). pii: e13137.
Kwakkenbos MJ*, Diehl SA*, Yasuda E, Bakker AQ, van Geelen CM, Lukens MV, van Bleek GM, Widjojoatmodjo MN, Bogers WMJM, Mei H, Radbruch A, Scheeren FA, Spits H, and T Beaumont (2010) Generation of stable monoclonal antibody-producing B cell receptor-positive human memory B cells by genetic programming. Nature Medicine 16 (1): 123-128. *equal contribution.
Schmidlin H*, Diehl SA*, and B Blom. (2009) New insights in the regulation of human B cell differentiation (review). Trends In Immunology 30(6): 277-285. *equal contribution.
Schmidlin H, Diehl SA, Nagasawa M, Scheeren FA, Schotte R, Uittenbogaart CH, Spits H, and B Blom. Spi-B inhibits human plasma cell differentiation by repressing expression of BLIMP1 and XBP-1 (2008), Blood 112(5): 1804-1812.
Diehl SA, Schmidlin H, Nagasawa M, Kwakkenbos M, Yasuda E, Beaumont T, Scheeren FA, and H Spits. STAT3-mediated BLIMP1 upregulation is coordinated with BCL6 downregulation to control human plasma cell differentiation (2008) J.Immunol. 180: 4805-4815.
Scheeren FA, Diehl SA, Smit LA, Beaumont T, Naspetti M, Bende RJ, Blom B, Karube K, Ohshima K, van Noesel CJ, and H Spits. (2008) IL-21 is expressed in Hodgkin Lymphoma and activates STAT5; evidence that activated STAT5 is required for Hodgkin Lymphomagenesis. Blood 111(9) 4706-4715.
Scheeren FA*, Naspetti M*, Diehl S, Schotte R, Nagasawa M, Wijnands E, Gimeno R, Vyth-Dreese FA, Blom B, and H Spits (2005) STAT5 regulates the self-renewal capacity and differentiation of human memory B cells and controls Bcl-6 expression. Nat.Immunol. 6:303-313 *equal contribution.
Diehl S and M Rincón (2002). The two faces of IL-6 on Th1/Th2 differentiation. Mol. Immunol. 39(9), 531-536.
Diehl S, Chow C-W, Rounds LL, Anguita J, Davis RJ, and M Rincón (2002) Induction of NFATc2 expression by IL-6 promotes Th2 differentiation. J. Exp. Med. 196(1), 39-49. PMCID: PMC2194007.
Diehl S*, Anguita J*, Hoffmeyer A, Zapton T, Ihle JN, Fikrig E, and M Rincón (2000) Inhibition of Th1 differentiation by IL-6 is mediated by SOCS1. Immunity 13(6), 805-815. *equal contribution.
Weiskopf D, Angelo MA, Bangs DJ, Sidney J, Paul S, Peters B, de Silva AD, Lindow JC, Diehl SA, Whitehead S, Durbin A, Kirkpatrick B, and Sette A. (2015) The human CD8+ T cell responses induced by a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine are directed against highly conserved epitopes. J. Virology. 89(1):120-8. PMCID: PMC4301095.
Kirkpatrick BD, Durbin AP, Pierce KK, Carmolli MP, Tibery C, Grier P, Hynes N, Elwood D, Jarvis AP, Sabundayo B, Lyon CE, Larsson CJ, Jo M, Lovchik J, Luke C, Walsh MC, Diehl SA, Subbarao K, and Whitehead SS. (2015) Robust and balanced immune responses to all four dengue serotypes following a single dose of a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine administered to healthy flavivirus-naïve adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases (in press).
Kirkpatrick BD, Colgate ER, Mychaleckyj JC, Haque R, Dickson DM, Carmolli MP, Nayak U, Taniuchi M, Naylor C, Qadri F, Ma JZ, Alam M, Walsh MC, Diehl SA, the PROVIDE study teams, Petri Jr WA. (2015) The “Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines In Developing Countries” (PROVIDE) Study: Description of Methods of an Interventional Study Designed to Explore Complex Biologic Problems. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. (in press).
Publications on PubMed
Publications on Google Scholar
2013 Member, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
2013 – Member, Infecious Disease Society of America
2008 – Member, American Association of Immunologists
2005 – 2008 Member, Dutch Immunology Society
2000 – Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science